Information Processing Theory
Explanation: Information Processing Theory developed in the early 1950s consists of three main components: sensory memory, short-term memory (working memory), and long-term memory. Sensory memory takes incoming information and keeps it briefly, keeping only the most important information at the present time and placing it in short-term memory, discarding all other information. Short-term memory is a temporary place for information that is being thought about at any moment in time. It is conscious memory from attention given to external stimuli, internal thought, or both, lasting around 15 to 20 seconds, unless repeated. This is when rehearsal enables the memory to last up to 20 minutes. Long-term memory provides a place for information to be stored permanently. Encoding takes place as information goes from short-term memory to long-term memory. It is the ability to store information in memory more easily, involving possible changes to the form of the information or adding to the new information through prior knowledge. Retrieval is used as a way of finding information that people have previously stored in order to use it again. This type of memory is considered easy in some cases, but difficult in others.